2019-03-13 10:28:30   温氏华农养猪训练营 浏览量:25

Content 目录
1 Pest Control 害虫控制 3
1.1 General thoughts 总的想法 3
1.2 Rodent control 啮齿类动物控制 3
1.3 Biological key data of rats and mice 大老鼠和小老鼠的生物学关键数据 4
1.4 Reasons for rodent control 控制啮齿类动物的原因 5
1.5 Steps of rodent control 控制啮齿类动物的步骤 6
1.5.1 Sanitation 环境卫生 6
1.5.2 Rodent proof construction 防鼠建筑 6
1.5.3 Population reduction 减少数量 7
1.5.4 Use of rodenticides 使用灭鼠剂 7
1.5.5 Cats and dogs 控制猫和老鼠 9
2 Transport 运输 9
2.1 Something general 总的想法 9
2.2 Feed delivery 饲料配送 10
2.3 Pig trucks 拉猪车运输 10
3 People’s behavior 人员行为 11
3.1 Biosafety concerning customers 客户方面的生物安全 11
3.2 Shoe disinfection 鞋消毒 12
3.3 Suggestion for farm workers 对工人的建议 12
3.3.1 Cleaning and disinfection of boots 清洗和消毒靴子 13
3.3.2 Washing and disinfection of hands 1 清洁和消毒手1 13
3.3.3 Washing and disinfection of hands 2 清洁和消毒手2 13
3.3.4 Pathways 走道 13
3.3.5 Human food delivery 人员食物配送 13
3.3.6 Visitors/ foreign workers 外来人员访问 14
4 Cleaning and disinfection 清洗清洁和消毒 14
4.1 Six steps of cleaning and disinfecting a stable 车间清洗清洁和消毒六步法 14
4.1.1 Step 1: Remove feces and food remains 第一步:人工清除车间内剩余饲料、粪便 14
4.1.2 Step 2: Pre-washing 第二步:用水进行预清洗 15
4.1.3 Step 3: Soaking 第三步:浸泡 15
4.1.4 Step 4: Washing 第四步:清洗 15
4.1.5 Step 5: Drying 第五步:干燥 16
4.1.6 Step 6: Disinfection 第六步:消毒 16
4.2 Pathways for pigs 赶猪道 17
4.3 Truck wash 运猪车清洗清洁和消毒 17
5 Food safety 饲料安全 18
5.1 Something general 总的想法 18
5.2 Silo areal 料塔区域 19
5.3 Feeding hygiene inside the stable 车间内部饲喂卫生 19
5.4 Hygiene of the water system 饮水系统卫生 19
1 Pest Control 害虫控制

1.1 General thoughts 总的想法
• Always underestimated part of biosecurity
• 害虫控制是生物安全的一部分
• Adequate control of rodents, birds, insects, and weeds is necessary to prevent entry of
diseases to the farm.
• 为防止疾病进入猪场,必须对啮齿类动物、鸟类、昆虫和杂草进行控制
• Make a plan to control pests present on the farm.
• 根据猪场目前情况,制定一个控制害虫的计划
• Keep track of existing pests and products used for control.
• 记录现存的害虫、用于控制害虫的产品
• Use traps to control rodents.
• 用捕鼠夹控制啮齿类动物
• Have a sketch of the location of the traps and bait-stations.
• 有陷阱或放置诱饵位置的草图
• Place meshes to prevent the entry of birds into production areas.
• 放置网格以防止鸟类进入生产区
• Traps should be placed at strategic locations that are not hazardous to children, staff,
and animals.
• 陷阱应放置在对儿童、人员和动物无害的位置
• Specific insecticides must be used for the control of flies for this purpose.
• 必须使用特定的杀虫剂来控制蝇类
• Keep the farm free of garbage, waste and dirt.
• 保持猪场干净,没有垃圾、废弃物和污物
1.2 Rodent Control 啮齿类动物控制
Rats and house mice occur worldwide as pests around people. They exist in our cellars, in
the sewers, on dumpsters, in parks, in warehouses and first of all on farms. Rats can cause
not only significant damage to supplies and to materials, but they also carry and spread
deadly diseases for people and farm animals. The fight against the rodents is often
underestimated. They are besides other vectors responsible for serious outbreaks in the past
like FMD (= Food and Mouth Disease) and CSF (= Classical Swine Fever) in Europe. The
rodents must also be seen as a big thread for spreading ASF in Europe and especially in China
at the moment.
• Recognition of live or dead rodents.

• 识别活的或死的啮齿类动物
• Droppings like odor or insulating material.
• 绝缘材料是否被破坏
• Runways, inside and outside.
• 是否在走道内或外活动.
• Tunnels, holes ➤ signs of movement.
• 地道、鼠洞➤活动迹象
• Check with ultraviolet light and have a look for faeces and urine.
• 用紫外线检查,看看有没有粪便和尿液
Commensal rodents, Rattus norvegicus (brown rat), Rattus flavipectus (black rat) and Mus
musculus (house mouse), are the most important pests both in urban and rural regions.
1.3 Biological key data of rats and mice 


1.4 Reasons for a rodent control 控制啮齿类动物的原因
1. Rodents are carrier and important vectors for serious pig diseases.
Around 100 diseases can be transmitted from rodents to humans and animals. For
animals and humans should be mentioned among other things:
大约100 种疾病可以从啮齿动物传染给人类和动物。对于人类和动物而言,除其它事项外,还应涉及:

Also, parasites are introduced via rats and mice, such as ticks, fleas and tapeworms.
2. Spread or accelerate the spread of diseases.
3. Attract other predators, rodents are also a food source.

1.5 Steps of rodent control 控制啮齿类动物的步骤
1.5.1 Sanitation 环境卫生
• Plant free area around the buildings.
• Clean and carry out any garbage, waste and dirt!!!
• Grass must be shortened regularly.
• Search for holes in the grass and put baits in.
1.5.2 Rodent proof construction 防鼠建筑
• Buildings need to be rodent proofed.
• 建筑能防御老鼠
• Close holes, cracks and improve the surrounded area of the buildings.
• 封闭孔洞、裂缝,改善建筑物周围环境
• Keep any doors, windows and entries for humans closed.
• 人员进出关好所有的门、窗和入口
• Lay a band of gravel around the buildings (at least 50 cm).
• 在墙四周放置至少50cm 宽的鹅卵石
1.5.3 Population reduction 减少数量
Trapping 鼠夹
• Set traps right against the wall, corners, dark places, where mice like to hide.
• 在墙壁角落、黑暗的地方设置陷阱,老鼠喜欢躲在那里

Figure 2 Source: PIH-107, 2010

1.5.4 Use of rodenticides 使用灭鼠剂
• Continuously use of toxic baits ➤ safest rat and mice reduction.
• 持续使用毒饵 ➤ 较安全的灭鼠方法
• The population is kept on a low level.
• 有效降低数量
• Using bait stations in and outside the buildings.
• 在建筑物内外使用毒饵
• Check the bait stations on a monthly basis.
• 每月检查一次毒饵的情况
• Change the brand or kind of baits.
• 更换不同种类的毒饵
• ➤ keep it attractive for rodents.
• 保持毒饵新鲜美味
Active ingredients: Anticoagulants are inhibiting blood clotting.
Anticoagulants first generation: Warfarin, Coumatetralyl, Chlorophacinone, etc. have to be
taken by rodents several times to be effective.
Advantages 优点 :
The rodents will die after a few days, so their death is not associated with the bait by their fellow rodents.
Disadvantages 缺点:

The rodents can develop resistances against the bait ingredients.
Anticoagulants Second Generation: Bromadiolone and Difenacoum, later Brodifacoum,
Flocoumafen and Difethialone kill effectively after the first intake by rodents.
If the rodents have developed a genetic resistance against anticoagulants of the first
generation, the usage of anticoagulants of the second generation is necessary.
Baits with anticoagulant ingredients need to be placed in closed bait stations.So, nottarget animals are not negatively influenced or even killed by the rodenticides.

1.5.5 Cats and dogs 控制猫和老鼠
Cats and dogs are a high risk inside animal farms and therefore not allowed. Furthermore,
the rodents adapt their behaviour to the existence of predators in their habitat. So an
effective reduction is not achievable.
2 Transports 运输

2.1 Something general 总的想法
All kinds of transports to a farm are a high risk of introduce diseases into the farm.
Therefore, the frequency of transports must be reduced to a minimum.
The target should be to reduce the frequency of transports no matter, whether they
are private vehicles, feed trucks, equipment deliveries or semen deliveries not more
than twice a week.
Cleaning and disinfection of trucks is a necessary step before they come even near
to the farm. A quarantine time should be calculated as well.
In general trucks and vehicles need to be cleaned carefully and checked first.
Subsequently they have to be disinfected. After that procedure the trucks/ vehicles  are standing still for at least 2 hours and then drive to the farm.
一般来说,卡车和车辆首先检查是否清洗干净。然后必须对它们进行消毒。完成该步骤后,卡车/车辆需停在原地至少2 小时,随后驶向猪场。
Any equipment or semen deliveries are loaded over to a delivery point and never
enter the farm directly. A special storage with ultraviolet light for disinfection and
quarantine time overnight needs to be installed.
Foreign pig trucks will never come near to the farm, because it is unknown where
they have been before. So, pigs are loaded on to company owned trucks and brought to special and marked loading area to be loaded to foreign trucks.
2.2 Feed delivery 饲料配送

• Start on Monday
• 星期一出发
• First deliver feed to the high value farms (like breeding farm and boar station).
• 先送高基因价值的场站(如原种场和公猪站)
• Then the others (growing out, fattening).
• 然后种猪培育场和其他场区
• If possible feed delivery only once a week.
• 如果可能每周只送一次
• Washing and disinfection (Neopredisan 4% highly recommended) of the feed trucks
on Saturday.
• 清洗和消毒(推荐使用4%帝赞)料车
• Trucks need to be clean, otherwise disinfection is ineffective.
• 料车需确保干净,否则没有消毒效果
• Sunday: feed trucks are not moved.
• 周日:料车停在消毒点不允许移动
• So, you need a feed storage at all farms at least for 10 days.
• 所以,各场站至少需要储存10 天的饲料
2.3 Pig trucks 拉猪车运输

• Don’t move the truck at least for 24 hours (after a successful washing and
disinfection), before going to a farm after driving to customers.
• 在进入各场站前至少保持24 小时不移动(成功清洗和消毒后,然后在运猪进入至客户场
• Wash the truck directly after usage, first from the inside and then from the outside.
• 使用后直接清洗拉猪车,先从内洗,再从外洗
• Use high pressure machines (>100 bar) and hot water.
• 使用热水高压冲洗设备(>100 巴)进行清洗
• Use alkaline soaking liquid for washing.
• 使用碱性清洁剂清洗
• After washing Disinfection from the inside and then from the outside and every time.
• 清洗后➤每一次都是先内部在外部进行消毒
• Drivers are not allowed to enter the stables; they have to stay on the truck!!!
• 司机不准进入圈舍,他们呆在卡车上!!!
• For loading pigs, use farm owned equipment and leave it there.
• 给客户卸猪时,使用客户场的设备且使用后留在客户处
• Wash your hands after, also use hand disinfection.
• 卸完后,用 免手洗消毒凝胶消毒双手
• 2 pairs of shoes/ boots
• 准备两双鞋(靴)
o One for outside the truck and one for entering the loading space.
o 一双鞋下车后穿,另外一双胶靴进入装猪台区域穿
o Wash and disinfect them every time.
o 每次用完后都清洗、消毒
• Drivers are not allowed to carry any food with them (high risk material).
• 司机不得携带任何食物(高风险食物)上车
3 People’s behaviour 人员行为

3.1 Biosafety concerning customers 客户方面的生物安全
• Vehicles, which don’t belong to the company shall not be near the farms.
• 外来车辆不得停放在公司
• Reception of customers at the office in town, then go to the growing out-farm by
company owned vehicles.
• 在城镇办公室接待客户,然后乘坐公司指定车辆到场区选猪
• At the office customers get disposable overalls and shoe covers (2 pairs) washing
hands with soap (liquid soap) and hand disinfection.
• 在城镇办公室用洗手液洗手,然后用免手洗消毒凝胶消毒,让客户穿一次性鞋套乘坐指定车辆到场区后,再次用洗手液洗手和消毒,穿上另外一双一次性鞋套和一次性隔离服在进入展厅选猪
• No meals inside the farms for customers.
• 不让客户在场内就餐
• No potential germs near to the farms.
• 没有潜在的细菌在猪场附近
3.2 Shoe disinfection鞋消毒
• NaOH is very aggressive, to shoes and feet (shoes with holes).
• NaOH 对鞋和脚有腐蚀性(鞋会出现洞)
• Better would be Neopredisan – 4%, remember the residence time 2 minutes, at least
5cm deep in one container and change the dirty liquid every day.
• 最好使用4%帝赞消毒剂,消毒盆内消毒液深度为5 厘米,每次消毒脚需在消毒盆内停留2 分钟,每天更换消毒盆一次
• Shoes or boots must be absolutely clean, otherwise no disinfection.
• 鞋或胶靴必须干净,否则没有消毒效果
• Replace the disinfectant inside the bowls continuously.
• 坚持在每天相同时间更换消毒液
3.3 Suggestions for farm workers 对工人的建议
• Reduce person’s traffic to minimum.
• 减少人员流动,使人员流动降至最低
• No private vehicles inside the farm (motorcycles for example).
• 场内不存放私家车(例如摩托车)
• Find a save spot outside the farm for them.
• 在猪场外面找到一个安全的存放点
• Workers, who have been outside, need to follow special rules:
• 工人外出:需要遵循特殊的规则
• Shower directly after entering the black area of the farm.
• 进入厂区后直接在脏区洗澡
• Shower again, when you enter the white area and start your work.
• 进入净区工作时,再次洗澡
• Wash your hair!!!
• 洗头!!!
• Using Shampoo and shower gel.
• 使用洗发水和沐浴露
• Defecate and urinate only on toilet, not anywhere else.
• 不再除了厕所以外的任何地方大小便
• Wash hands after with liquid soap, no soap bars, otherwise we spread potential
germs from one to another.
• 用洗手液洗手,不要用香皂,会增加交叉感染的机率
• Workers, who went out, need stay in the black area for 24 hours.
• 外出的工人,返回时需在脏区隔离24 小时
• In the canteen: 职工餐厅:
• Washing hands before having a meal.
• 饭前洗手
• Washing hands, and use hand disinfection afterwards.
• 饭后洗手,用免手洗消毒凝胶消毒双手
• Food comes from the outside and is a risk.
• 所有来自外部的食物都是一种风险
3.3.1 Cleaning and disinfection of boots 清洗和消毒胶靴
Cleaning and disinfection of the boots before and after changing to another
production area
3.3.2 Washing and disinfecting hands 1 清洗和消毒手1
Washing and disinfecting hands before and after entering another production area
3.3.3 Washing and disinfecting hands 2 清洗和消毒手2
Washing hands after using the toilet ➤ human faeces: high risk for diseases.
3.3.4 Pathways 走道
Only use solid pathways
3.3.5 Human Food delivery 人员食物配送
It is not allowed to go inside the farm and take human food with you from the
3.3.6 Visitors/ foreign workers 外来人员访问
• Registration of visitors and foreign workers. 外来人员进场需登记
• Reduce traffic of foreign vehicles and workers to a minimum, only if absolutely
• Check foreign workers and their belongings, no risky materials inside the farm.

4 Cleaning and disinfection 清洗清洁和消毒
4.1 Six steps of cleaning and disinfection a stable
1. Remove faeces and food remains
2. Roughly pre-washing only with water
3. Soaking
4. Cleaning, very precisely, high pressure, use warm water
第四步:彻底清洗清洁 高压 >100 bar
5. Dry out
6. Disinfection
Disease prevention and biosecurity are a complex problem:
It starts with cleaning and disinfection and goes on with vaccination and medical treatment.
4.1.1 Step 1: Remove faeces and food remains
• Remove faeces and food remains from the stable, manually.
• Start cleaning directly after the animal transfer.
• Put faeces, urine, dust and old feed out of the stable.
• Put garbage and other things out of the stable.
• Control and perhaps fix the electric facilities.
4.1.2 Step 2: Pre-washing 第二步:预清洗
• Washing only with water.
4.1.3 Step 3: Soaking 第三步:浸泡
• Warm water is helpful.
• Use a special soaking liquid to crack protein and fat.
• Soak only what you can clean in the next 60 minutes.
只浸湿60 分钟内可有效清洁的物品和设施设备等
• Do not forget the ceiling and the walls.
The efficiency of the disinfection is ensured by a good cleaning. Grease films that close the
pores and capillaries of surfaces must be removed in order to expose underlying inclusions as
far as possible.

4.1.4 Step 4: Washing a stable 第四步:彻底清洗圈舍

• Don't wait some days, do it directly.
• A good cleaning is 99% of the disinfection.
• Use warm water, if possible.
• Use pressure washer and plenty of water to clean everything.
• Clean also the office, the floor in front of the stable and all other rooms, which
belong to this production area.
• Don't clean the underfloor storage.
• Clean the water pipes.
• Clean the feed pipes.
• Clean the feed silo inside and put the old feed out.
• Don’t forget the ceiling and the walls.
• At last put the manure out of the underfloor storage.
4.1.5 Step 5: Dry out 第五步:干燥
• After cleaning, the concrete surfaces have to dry (must be “grey”), since otherwise
the disinfectant solution is diluted on the surface.
4.1.6 Step 6: Disinfection 第六步:圈舍消毒
• Before you start disinfecting the room must be completely dry.
• Methods of drying the stables: 1. over a night; 2. under special climate or weather
like raining warm drying.
• Don't use aldehyde or glutaraldehyde for disinfection, they do not work below a room
temperature of 20 degrees Celsius.
不要用含醛或戊二醛的消毒剂,因为此消毒剂在室温低于20 度时失效!
• Use cresols for disinfection, they work at any temperature (NEOPREDISAN).
使用甲酚类消毒剂进行消毒,因其有效性不受温度影响(如Menno 专利消毒剂)
• Don't use fog, but foaming, because it's very dangerous (aerosol) for the farm
worker’s health.
• To calculate the right amount, it is important to know that you need 0.4 litre per m2
计算正确的使用量提示:Menno 消毒剂混合液用量0.4 升/m2
• So simple Maths 0,4x0,02=0.008l ➤so you need 8 ml pure disinfectant per m2 for a 2%
简单的数学公式0.4x0.02 =0.008 升➤需要8 毫升/m2 Menno 消毒剂原 液即能获
• For a 4% solution you need 16 ml/m2
配比4%的混合溶液,需要16 毫升/m2 Menno 消毒剂原液
Attention: Lower concentrations are useless and can also cause resistances!!
• Disinfect walls, floors, pens, facilities, tools, work boots, transport vehicles etc.
• To calculate the surface of a house
• Farrowing: 2.5 x floor space
分娩舍:2.5 x 地板面积
• All other houses in general: 2 x floor space
其它猪舍:2 x 地板面积
• You also can calculate the exact surface by measuring the floor, walls, ceiling and all
parts of the pen and so on
4.2 Pathways for pigs 赶猪道
• Clean the pathways directly after stalling / moving pigs.
• Use disinfection only after drying.
• Use disinfection every morning before using the pathways:
➤ We don't know what happened at night!!
4.3 Truck Wash 运猪车清洗清洁和消毒
1 Removal of all manure and bedding
2 Soaking with soap and/or degreaser
3 Pressure washing with hot water is most effective vs. cold water wash
4 Disinfecting by foaming with an appropriate disinfectant
5 Drying
• Keep the cargo area free of manure, manually
• Apply soap according to label directions inside and outside
• Do not let the soap dry out.
• Working from the top going down, high pressure wash required including ramps,
gates, crowd boards, brooms, shovels and dirty and clean boxes.
• Apply disinfectant to all.
• Clean and disinfect the driver’s cab. Be sure that the pedals and the floor of the cab
are clean.
• Put on new shoe covers, then clean the cab from the inside, such as steering
wheel, door handles, and dashboard.
5 Feed Safety 饲料安全

5.1 Something general 总的想法
• Exposure to germs of any kind must be absolutely avoided and monitored in regular
• The entire feed supply chain, from the storage of the raw components to the
preparation of the feed mixture, from the transport routes to the pig feeding system,
must be closely observed!

• If too little attention is paid to hygiene in liquid feeding systems, the feed lines might
develop bio films, which act as a nutritional solution for the growth of different
• The quality of the water, which is one of the most important feeding components in
pig rearing, should be checked regularly!
5.2 Silo areal 料塔区域
• The silo areal must be clean at any time.
• 料塔区域在任何时间都必须保持干净
• Salmonella can occur.
• Continuously rodent control.
5.3 Feeding Hygiene inside the stable 车间内部饲喂卫生
• Adjust the feeders, so that the pigs are able to finish it.
• Left feed inside the troughs is always a risk for microorganisms and bacteria
• Bad influence on feed intake and weight gain with poor feed hygiene.
• Economical aspect ➤ Reducing of feed losses.
5.4 Hygiene of the water-system 饮水系统卫生
• Water and water pipe hygiene.
• Drinking water especially from own wells need 2 times a year bacterial assay
(chemical-physical and bacteriological – danger: salmonella!).
尤其是自家的井水,每年检测水质2 次!(化学-物理和细菌学-危险:沙门氏菌!!!)
• High manganese, nitrite and nitrate levels can lead to poor development and lack of
• Perform germ-reducing measures (drinking water disinfection, water treatment,
chlorination, acidification, etc.).
• Attention!! Products used in the current mast must be approved for this!!
• The water system should be cleaned from time to time.
• Hygiene in the water supply always also depends on the equipment.
• Long troughs with aqua level need to be checked after feeding.
• Food remains must be removed, so all pigs are able to drink.
• Bowls are more accepted by pigs, the water intake is higher.
➤but they must be checked and cleaned every day.



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